『サラエボ旅行案内』——絶望への反撃

ユーモアや知性や「労働」は本来、抑制をうける種類のものだが、人びとにとっては「生き延びる」ための大切ななにかだった。


狙撃兵の銃弾が飛び交い、ビルは炎上し、子ども達が血を流して死んでいる。
そんな地域への、『旅行案内』の本です。

『だれも買わない本は、だれかが買わなきゃならないんだ』でこの本を知りました。

舞台はサラエボ。この本の執筆当時、サラエボはサラエボ包囲という戦火の中にありました。

サラエヴォ包囲 – Wikipedia

この本は、ミシュラン社発行のガイドブックを真似た構成になっていて、中も「インテリア」「学校」「通貨と物価」など、旅行案内の形を貫きます。

ミシュラン

しかし、中は非常に濃いブラックユーモアで満ちています。

ランニング

サラエボ市民にもっとも愛好されているスポーツ。誰もがこれを実践している。危険地域の住民たちがそうするように、交差点はどこも走らざるをえない。盗んだ薪をもったまま、行列ができているところまで走るということもある。何かが売られている。しかし行列に並ぶまでは、何が売られているのかはわからない。

子供の遊び

街に発射される手りゅう弾の数をかぞえること。倒れた木から枝を刈りとること。銃弾や砲弾を集めること。収集品の交換。

サラエボ市民

サラエボは痩せた人ばかりだ。彼らなら最新のダイエット法について本が書ける。唯一必要なのは街を包囲させること——シェイプアップの秘策はそれだ。

メガネ屋

メガネ屋では10種類ほどのメガネのフレームを売っている。それらはカウンターの下の安全な場所に保管してある。フレームの値段はあまり高くない。けれども近頃メガネのレンズを買いにくる人はいない。メガネをかけると、なにもかもよく見え過ぎるからだ。

そんなジョークと呼応するように、ショッキングな写真も多く掲載されています。

サラエボ包囲線

なぜ、このようなジョークで、悲惨なサラエボの状況が描かれるのか。
それは、本の前書きで触れられています。

本書は現在の記録であり、サバイバルのためのガイドであるが、同時にサラエボを戦火の犠牲地としてではなく、機知によって恐怖を克服するための実験場として伝える、未来に残す記録である。

紛争地帯。
その言葉を聞くだけで、私たちは、「ああ。銃弾が飛び交っていて危ないところか」という一種のステレオタイプで判断をしていまいます。
「怖いところ」
そういった目でしか見れなくなります。

紛争地が非常に危険で、恐ろしい地域なのは事実です。しかし、その立場からでは、見えてこない実情もある。それを痛感させられます。

そしてまた、僕たちはどこか、悲劇に麻痺しています。
テレビやネットで報道される、戦火で壊れた街、道路に横たわる人々。様々な地域で、同じような光景が繰り返されています。
「ああ、またこれか」
そういった思いをどうしても持ってしまいがちです。

しかし、本書に溢れるユーモアに触れると、その面白さに笑ってしまった後に、それがジョークであっても嘘ではない、という事実が鋭く刺さってきます。麻痺していた悲劇が色を取り戻すような感覚でした。

また、実際のサラエボ市民たちの、文化的なサバイバルにも驚嘆させられます。

戦火の中、展覧会が行われ、夜の街は危ないから昼に劇が催され、ファッションショーが行われます。
新聞を直接売っているのは記者本人で、紙が足りない時には建物の全面に貼り出します。
文化的であろうとすることは、人間であろうとすることなのかも知れません。

ガイドブックの中だけではなく、実際のサラエボ市民の生活の中にも、ユーモアが多分に存在しています。
水もなく、食料もなく、瓦礫に埋め尽くされた街の中で彼らは冗談を言い合います。
絶望の毎日の中、人間にできる、人間としての唯一の反抗、またプライドは、冗談を言うことなのかも知れません。

以前紹介した『夜と霧』の中でも、極限状態の中で強制収容所に入れられた人々が行ったことの一つは、冗談を言うことでした。

現在、サラエボは復興し、真新しいビルやオフィスが並んでいます。
街は新しく、まるで紛争は、出来の悪いジョークだったかのようです。

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