『プラネテス』を通してマンガの翻訳を考える

プラネテス

プラネテスは、僕の最も大切な本の1つです。
思いが強すぎてうまく紹介できない、という好きな異性を前にした中学生のような心境です。
ということで、今回は変化球でプラネテスをご紹介するとともに、「マンガの翻訳」とはどういうものか、を見ていこうと思います。


プラネテスは、近未来の宇宙を巡る話です。子どもが生まれたら必ずプラネテスは読ませよう、と心に誓っているくらい、入れ込んでしまっている作品です。
縁あって、僕はフィンランド語で描かれたプラネテスの第3巻を持っています。もちろん、日本語で書かれた原作がフィンランドに翻訳されたものです。
読んでいくと、単純に言葉が入れ替わるだけでなく、小さな違いがいくつもあることが分かりました。
では、さっそくその違いを見ていきましょう。画像はクリックすると大きくなります。

★吹き出しの中の記号はそのまま流用★

基本的に言葉は「日本語→フィンランド語」に翻訳されているのですが、記号はそのままの場合をよく見かけました。また、少々バランスがおかしくても、その記号の位置もそのままなのです。

↑の例だと、ハートマークが日本版と全く変わらない位置に置かれています。
↓も同じです。

なお、小さく手書きで書かれた「わからん」は、フィンランド版ではきっちりと文字が組まれています。これはどのセリフにおいても同じでした。
これは、日本語の方が自由度が高い、ということではなく、フィンランド語で手書き風の表現を加えるのは原作の改変に当たるからではないでしょうか。

★消えてしまったものたち★

どういった理由からか、原作から消された箇所がいくつかあります。

「成田⇔月、18時間」という表記が消えています。
上でも書いたように、文字の翻訳に手書き表現は使われず、全て一定の書体で行われています。
「ここを翻訳すると見た目が悪い。ならばいっそ消してしまおう」という判断でしょうか?
ただ、「⇔」だけは残されているのが少し気になります。成田の「成」の字が隠れていることもあり、「全ての文が載せられていない。完全な文が分からない以上、翻訳するのは止めておこう」という判断の可能性も考えられますね。
しかし、成田から月まで18時間とは驚きです。

プラネテスの遺書

プラネテスの遺書

これは、とても口惜しい改変でした。
先ほどのバスの例と違い、文字を消してしまうのは物語に差し支えます。そのため、ここでは比較的自然に文字が入れられています。
しかし、書き出し部分のペンの迷いが消えている!

確かに、翻訳版にも同じ箇所にペンの跡があれば不自然です。しかし、これは田辺(遺言書の書き手)の思いが強くにじみ出ている印象的なシーン。白紙では中々「書きたくても書けない」という心境は伝わってきません。
仕方ないとはいえ、悔しい修正でした。

★セリフでないものはどこまで訳されるか★

バスの例のように、吹き出し意外にも言葉は溢れています。
しかし、全てが訳されているわけではありません。その判断はどのようにされているんでしょうか?

プラネテス

置き手紙の内容も、吹き出しの中と同じように訳されています。
しかし、バス停の表記はそのままです。

訳すのが難しい、というのと、物語の進行に深く関わらない、というのが理由でしょうか。
バス停と同じような役割として表札がありますが、こちらは訳されています。

★擬音語、擬態語の表現★

静かな場面では「シーン」、物体が衝撃を受ける場面では「ドガンッ」など、マンガでは擬音語、擬態語がそのまま文字で表現されています。一説には、手塚治虫がこの手法を最初に始めたと言われています。
ただ、これは訳す上でなかなかやっかいな問題を起こしているようです。
吹き出しのセリフと違って絵と一体化しているので、どうしても改変しづらくなります。消すのも至難です。そのため、擬音語、擬態語は日本語の上にそのまま載せる、という形が多かったです。

プラネテス

また、フォントに限りがあるのか、静かなさざ波が何だかポップになっています。

ちなみに、興味深かったのは最後のページ。
マンガの読み方が解説されていました。

思えば、僕たちは何の気なしにマンガを読むことができますよね。
誰に習ったでもなく自然とコマを追えるのは、小さい頃からマンガに触れているからでしょうか?
マンガを読める、というのはひとつの能力なのかも知れませんね。

プラネテスは、いつかまたご紹介できればと思っています。
まだ告白には時間がかかりそうです。

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