[囲碁に馴染みがない方に] 人間はアルファ碁にどう立ち向かったのか

普段は本を紹介するのがメインで、加えて3年近く放置してしまっていた当ブログなのですが、囲碁界の「人類 vs アルファ碁」の大波乱を見た結果、いてもたってもいられずこの記事を書き始めました。人類代表を担ったイ・セドルがどのようにアルファ碁と闘い、囲碁界の人々がどれだけ驚愕したのか。それを、なるたけ囲碁を知らない方にも伝わるようにお話したいと思います。

■ 囲碁とはどういったゲームなのか。

囲碁は、黒石と白石を持つ側に分かれて交互に石を打ち、最終的に囲った地(陣地のこと)が多い者の勝利となります。いくつかの例外を除いて碁盤のどこに石を置いてもよく、ルール自体はボードゲームの中でも突出してシンプルです。(ルールを把握しただけではどのように打てば勝てるのか分からない、というのもミソです)

将棋ほどコンピューター囲碁が脅威的でなかったのは、こういった「選択肢(石を置く場所)の多さ」や「ひとつひとつの石自体には価値がない」といった点にありました。

例えば、将棋の場合は王将・飛車・歩など、駒によって能力が違いますし、それに伴って駒の価値も変わりますよね。でも、囲碁においてはどの石の価値も同列です。その石の価値は周囲の状況によって決定されますし、その価値も対局が進むに連れて変化していきます。

非常に簡易的な説明になりますが、以上がざっくりとした囲碁というゲームになります。

 

■ 第1局「奇襲」

Match 1 - Google DeepMind Challenge Match: Lee Sedol vs AlphaGo

出典:Match 1 – Google DeepMind Challenge Match: Lee Sedol vs AlphaGo
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vFr3K2DORc8

初戦では黒番(先手)を持ったイ・セドル。奇襲、という言い方は少し大げさかも知れませんが、彼は序盤で一般的な定石にはない手を繰り広げていきます。アルファ碁は、過去の人間の棋譜データを大量に読み込んでいるのが強みの1つ。おそらくセドルは「この手は学習していないだろう」と揺さぶりにいったんだと思われます。この時点では、アルファ碁の強さは未知数ですしね。

アルファ碁は多少の疑問手(その打ち方はおかしいのでは?という手)を打ちつつも、こうした揺さぶりにはまどわされず、逆にセドルが少し歩の悪い立ち上がりだったと思います。ただ、その後は盛り返し、完全に「イ・セドルの優勢」と断言できる局面にまで至りました。

しかし、突然アルファ碁が放った勝負手で事態は急変。当初は無意味に思われていたアルファ碁の手がここにきて意味を持ち、結果はセドルの投了負けとなりました。

まさかの人間側の初戦負け。「コンピューターは人間に数十年は勝てない」と信じていた多くの囲碁ファン、プロ棋士たちの衝撃たるや、凄まじいものでした。とはいえ、セドル自身が「序盤にミスをしてしまった」と語っていたこともあり、まだまだ打てる、というのが大方の予想でした。

ただ、一抹の不安として頭をよぎっていたのは「アルファ碁が放った勝負手は本当に”勝負手”だったのか?」ということ。アルファ碁は自分が不利だと察してそういった手を打ったのではなく、始めからその手も見越して自分が優勢だと判断していたのではないか。その場合、アルファ碁は人間の一歩(もしくはそれ以上)先をいってしまっていると言えます。

 

■ 第2局「正面衝突」

Match 2 - Google DeepMind Challenge Match: Lee Sedol vs AlphaGo

出典:Match 2 – Google DeepMind Challenge Match: Lee Sedol vs AlphaGo
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-GsfyVCBu0

先に結果を言ってしまえば、第2局もセドルの敗北。この対局は、完全にアルファ碁が人間を越えたことを象徴したものでした。

第1局の反省を踏まえてか、序盤から”ガチ”で打ちにいっていたイ・セドル。一方のアルファ碁の打ち回しはよく言って疑問手、はっきりと言えば悪手の連発でした。解説者の口からも「これはもう、どう考えてもイ・セドルさんの勝ちですね」という言葉が何度も漏れる状況。

「でも、そう思っていて初戦は負けたので、油断はできませんね」なんて笑っていたら、全く同じ状況が繰り返されてしまったのです。

どこかで決定的な変化があったわけではありません。

「あ、意外とアルファ碁の地も残っているので、大差で勝つわけではないですね」
「もしかすると、アルファ碁の方が優勢なのかな…?」
「どう頑張っても、もうセドルは逆転できませんね」

気がつけば盤の中央にアルファ碁の地ができており、第1局と同じく序盤の悪手が活きていたのです。囲碁において重要視される、大局観。部分的な状況ではなく全体を見据えるこの力を、アルファ碁は想像以上に持っていたわけです。

最も恐ろしかったのは、「人間側が大きく得をした」と思った場面がいくつもあったのに、終局してみると結局それがたいした手になっていなかったこと。ほぼ全ての棋士が有力だと感じた打ち手を、アルファ碁は「そんなの、たいしたことないよ」と評価した。そして、それが正しかった。

「強い」ではなく、「怖い」。

負けたという事実よりも、この”負け方”に碁界はショックを隠しきれませんでした。

 

■第3局「乱戦」

Match 3 - Google DeepMind Challenge Match: Lee Sedol vs AlphaGo

出典:Match 3 – Google DeepMind Challenge Match: Lee Sedol vs AlphaGo
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qUAmTYHEyM8

これまでのアルファ碁の打ち方は比較的簡明で、「大勝か、大敗か」というような戦いにはなりませんでした。となれば、天下分け目の天王山となる第3局では積極的に乱戦に持ち込みたいところ。複雑になった戦いこそイ・セドルの真骨頂、というところもあるので、セドルも果敢に戦いを仕掛けていく流れでした。

加えて、視聴者の多くが期待していたのが「コウ」です。

囲碁に馴染みのない方には少し複雑なルールになってしまうのですが、囲碁にはコウと呼ばれる状況が発生することがあります。これは、お互いが同じところにずっと打ててしまう事態を指し、「すぐには同じ場所に打てない」という制限を加えないと同じ状況が延々と続いてしまうのです。

このコウが発生した場面にだけ、「コウ材」と呼ばれるその場面以外では全く意味をなさい打ち方が出てくるのです。複雑なやり取りになるので、コンピューター囲碁はコウに弱い、と長らく言われてきました。

第1局、第2局とコウは発生しなかったので、「イ・セドルはGoogleとコウをつくらないように契約しているんだ」という根も葉もない噂が流れる程、みなコウに一縷の望みを託していたのです。

さて、実際の対局に話を戻すと、セドルの誘いには乗らずにアルファ碁は淡々と打ち進めました。そうこうする内に、アルファ碁は広大な地を確保。セドルの勝利も、絶望的になってきました。

挽回が厳しくなってきたころ、セドルがアルファ碁の陣地に侵入。これは、はっきり言って”無理”な手です。対プロ棋士であれば通用しない打ち方ですが、この後に続く第4局、第5局のためにも、アルファ碁の対応を見ておきたいといった心理があったんだと思います。

そして必死にアルファ碁の地をかき乱し、待望のコウが発生しました。

しかし、僕の目にはアルファ碁はしっかりとコウにも対応できているように見えました。実況解説では「コウになってからはアルファ碁の動きが少し悪そう。これが弱点かも知れない」ということも言われていましたが、もともとこの状況での「コウ」はアルファ碁が有利な展開。結果、きっちり読み切って勝っていますし、正直これを弱点と呼ぶのは厳しいと感じました。

というのも、アルファ碁にとっては「僅差での勝利」も「大差での勝利」も変わりません。このコウの場面もそうですし、それ以外の場面でもアルファ碁がセドルを”叩き潰す”チャンスはありました。しかし、アルファ碁はそういった早期決着な手は選ばず、それをもって「アルファ碁は時々ぬるい手を打つ」と言われるわけですが、実際はきっちり計算して自分の優位をキープしているように思われます。

 

■ 総評

ということで、五番勝負において人類側の負けが決定しました。(ルール上、あとの2戦も開戦されます)

人間の想像を越えた打ち回しで、着実に勝利をもぎ取ったアルファ碁。人間を相手にしているというよりも、淡々と囲碁というパズルを解いているような着手は、恐ろしいものでした。

この奇妙さをどう形容すればよいのか。難しいところではありますが、単なる戦略の違いを越えた、「囲碁をどういうゲームだと捉えているのか」という根本の部分が異なっているように見えました。

そして、まだ2戦が残っていますが、僕はイ・セドルの健闘を心から讃えたいです。

突然の人類代表というプレッシャーを背負いながらの打ち回し。特に第3局の「美しくない」無理な打ち込みともがきは、世界の舞台でプロ棋士が実行するのは辛いものがあったでしょう。次局も見据えて、あるゆる可能性を模索し続けるセドルは、改めて人類代表にふさわしい棋士でると実感させられました。

今回の衝撃を受け止めるのに時間がかかり、気がつけばこの記事の執筆中に第4戦もその火蓋を切っています。

人間側の様々な思惑が交錯していますが、これらの対局が実に“面白い“のは、きっと碁界の誰もが認めるところでしょう。

これからの2戦。ふたりの打ち手は、再び素晴らしい一局を見せてくれるはずです。

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