宗教者が語る死刑廃止

宗教者が語る死刑廃止

「もし、身内が人を殺したらどうしますか」


死刑というテーマが非常に大きく、扱いずらい問題なのはご承知の通り。
それは同時に、様々な分野からのアプローチが可能、というか必要だということ。

宗教者が語る、という題にはなっているけれど、基本的にはキリスト教視点からのもの。
そして立場としては、死刑制度の廃止、撤廃。

日本は死刑制度を導入、利用しているけれど、世界的に見れば少数派です。
でも、国内での死刑制度支持はいまだ大きい。
なぜだろう?
この部分は自分でも深く調べていきたい。

読んでいて少し気になったのは、聖書の”解釈”だ。
「聖書に○○と書かれている箇所がある。これはつまり△△であるから、死刑という制度への批判が見て取れる」という感じの記述が多く見られるのだけれど、自分にはその聖書の言葉が、死刑制度への批判としては読み取れなかった。

僕はキリスト教徒ではないし、聖書も読んだことがない。
そのための全体の文脈というものを知らないから、十分に聖書の言葉を咀嚼できていないという一面はある。
ただ、キリスト教徒の間でも、聖書からどう死刑制度を読み取るかという点で議論があるとも書かれていて、決して死刑制度の否定が断言されているわけではない、というのは1つの事実だろう。

以下、キリスト教はなぜ死刑制度を否定するかの理由について、少し抜粋。

私たちはよく、「死をもって罪をあがなう/つぐなう」というが、キリスト教的に言えば、真に罪をあがなうことができるのは、罪なき身で十字架にかけられたイエス・キリストの他にない。イエスがみずからの死によって全ての人の罪をあがなったのだから、この大いなる救いにあずかる私たちは、たとえどんな罪を犯した人のいのちも奪うべきではないというのが、聖書が教える死刑廃止論だ。

神学的な立場に立ったものの言い方をすれば、修復は、死者と殺害者の和解と赦しを念頭に置かなければならない。
このように言うといささか非現実的な考え方のように聞こえるかもしれないが、決してそうではない。純粋に、今生きている人たちの利害のみを念頭に置いた社会を想定してみるといい。死者の感情や尊厳は軽んじられ、「生きるが勝ち」という論理がはびこる殺伐とした社会が生まれることにはなりはしないだろうか。

「生きるが勝ち」への言及は、すごく斬新だった。
僕は基本的に、生者のために社会はあるべき、というか、生きている者のために社会を運用することに何の疑いもなかったからだ。

単純に考えが違う、ともまとめられるけど、物事を考える射程が伸びてるなぁ、と思った。
考えのものさしが長い、ていうのかな。
死後の世界というのを真剣に取り扱った時、こういった考えが生まれるのはある意味当然なのかも知れない。

まぁそういった死後の世界を信じていない人たちから見れば、「ふざけるな」という声が出るのも、当然だと思う。
ただここでの「生きるが勝ち」という言葉は、考えのコアというより、イメージを伝えるキャッチコピー的なものだと思うので、この言葉自体を否定するのは少しお門違いになるかも。

僕は特別傾倒している宗教がないせいかも知れないけど、ちょっと意固地になりすぎかな?と思うところもある。

やはり官の主導による、援助による被害者の支援というものは、これは必ず警察に通じているんです。警察に通じた支援というものは、これはあってはならない。

被害者への支援、ほとんどは身内を殺された近親者、の支援の重要性はこの本でも説いている。
が、上に書いたように、国の力なんて借りない!借りるべきではない!私たちは私たちの力で被害者援助をしている!という意見が見られる。

まぁ死刑に反対するキリスト教信者からすれば、するべきでない死刑を行っている国に対し、不信感は持ってしまうのかも知れない。
ただ僕の立場としては、その手段がなんであれ、結果的に被災者の痛みが少しでも緩和されるのならいいんじゃないか?と感じてしまう。
これはある意味効率性を意識した考えだから、譲れない、それこそ”信条”といったものが重要になってくる宗教の立場としては、現場的な対応というのは厳しいのかも知れない。

ただ、少し気になった箇所が。
集会記録として、本の最後に死刑廃止フォーラムでのやりとりが文書化されているんだけれど、その中で

「自分の娘が殺されたら、と考えることもあるけれど、実際そこで何を感じるか、何を思うかは被害者になってみないと決してわからない。だから、もし自分の家族が殺されたら、と考えることは危ないと思います」

といった感じのことを述べる箇所がある。
これに僕は納得しつつも、反対だな。

僕らは決して他人の痛み、悲しみ、喜び、怒りを100%理解できない。
それは揺らぐことのない事実。

身内が突然殺される。
その状況は、僕の想像を完全に越えている。

ただね、そのディスコミュニケーションの壁を前にただ茫然としていることを肯定するのなら、僕たちは誰も救えない。誰も救われない。
その不理解を理由に想像を否定するのなら、彼らがしている被害者援助とはなんなのだろう。
それらは必死に、取りこぼすことは分かりつつも、相手の痛みを汲み取ろうとする行為じゃないのかな?

ただ、自分の想像、理解は、当事者のそれとは決して同一ではない、という自覚は必須。
前提となる不理解を無視すれば、そこから生まれる声は当事者を置き去りにした影の暴言に過ぎない。

さて、最後の集会記録ではお坊さんの言葉もあるのだけれど、これが今まで違ってすっと入ってきた。
やっぱり、なじみの薄いキリスト教をもとにした言葉に比べ、耳に入りやすいのかも知れない。

その中で誰もが言いますように、親鸞の教えというのは「悪人正機」です。なぜそういうふうに悪人と言わなければならないかというと、人間は善人だということだと思います。善人とは別の言い方をすれば、「自分は加害者にはならない」「いつ被害者になるかは分からないけど、加害者にはならない」と固く信じている人のことをいいます。私たち自身もそう思っているのではないでしょうか。
死刑制度を考える時に、「もし、身内の人が殺されたらどうしますか」とは聞かれますが、「もし、身内が人を殺したらどうしますか」とは一切聞かれない。つまりそれは本質的にそいういう意味では善人なのでしょう。善人は必ず被害者の側に感情移入をします。そのことによって、免罪されると同時に正義の味方であるというわけで、つまり犯罪に対して私たちは、とても不誠実なのです。

「もし、身内が人を殺したらどうしますか」とは一切聞かれない。
これは、考えたことがなかったなぁ。
身内、もっと言えば自分が人を殺める可能性は決してゼロじゃない。

想像することは大事だ、ということを書いたけど、そもそも想像する対象として、加害者ってのは無意識に除外してた。

ここに書いてることが正しい、正しくない、という見方よりも、純粋に一宗教が死刑をどう捉えているかを知るために読むとより有意義かも。
視点を変更する意味でも、興味がある人は手に取ってみるのをおすすめします。

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