読んでいない本について堂々と語る方法

僕が語るということ。僕を語るということ。

学生たちは学校で本の読みかたや本について語る方法は教わっているが、読んでいない本について語る方法を教えることは学校のプログラムには奇妙にも欠けている。


なんて魅力的なタイトル。
そしてこの強烈なタイトルを吹き飛ばす、逆転サヨナラ満塁ホームランのような内容。

この本は、具体的な読んでいない本について語る手段には、深く言及しません。
むしろ、本について語る時のスタンスを教えてくれます。
でも、そんなものこそこの本では小さな小さな通過点に過ぎず、”読む”とはどういうことなのか、”語る”というのはどういうことなのか、深く、鋭く、切り込んできます。

ある本を読んだ、というのはどういう状況のことでしょうか。
直接手に取ったことはなくても、人伝えに内容を聞いたことのある本は、読んだと言えるんでしょうか。
昔読んで、今は一切内容を覚えていない本を、読んだと言えるんでしょうか。
著者は、”完読”について、同時に”未読”について疑問符をなげかけます。
同時にそれは、いわゆる”読んでいない”という状況であっても、十分にその本について語れる、ということにつながっていきます。

大学で文学を教えている著者バイヤールが手始めにやってのけるのが、文中に出てくる全ての書籍には注がついていて、その本をどれくらい読んだか、またどれくらい良いと思ったかが書いてある。

<未> ぜんぜん読んでいない
<流> ざっと読んだ
<聞> 人から聞いたことがある
<忘> 読んだことはあるけど忘れた
そして評価は◎、○、×、××の4段階。

もちろん<未>で××という評価もある。
文学を語る側の人間が、”教養”とされている本に堂々と未読の印をつける。
著者自身も言っていますが、有名な古典を実際に読んでいない大学教授は、別に珍しくはないでしょう。しかしそれを公にするというの、たじろぐような威勢の良さですね。

一冊の本を全部は読まないにしても、ある程度は読んだ人間を、どのカテゴリーに入れるべきだろうか。何時間も読んだ人間はどうか。もし彼らがその本について語ることになったら、彼らは本を読まずにコメントしていると言えるだろうか。同様の問いは、ムージルの図書館司書のように本の周縁にとどまる人間についても発することができる。ある本を深くは読むが、それを位置づけられない者と、いかなる本のなかにも入ってゆかないが、すべての本のあいだを移動する者の、どちらがよりよい読者だといえるだろうか。

著者がこの本の1つのポイントとして何度も提示してくるのが、<共有図書館>という考えです。
簡単に言うと、私たちはある本を考える時、その本単体を評価しているのでなく、さまざまな他の本や社会、イメージとのつながりの中でとらえている、という考えです。僕たち日本人が村上春樹を読む時、無名の新人作家と同じような心持ちではきっと読めないでしょう。もっと身近な話、友達に勧められた本は、「あの人が勧めてくれた本」として<共有図書館>に位置づけられ、未知ではなくなります。
これは逆に、その本自体を読んだことがなくても、その本を<共有図書館>の中の位置、流れの1つの泡沫として語れることを示唆しています。
源氏物語を読んだことがなくても、それが平安時代に紫式部によって書かれた光源氏を主人公として置いた物語であり、日本文学の中で古典中の古典である、なんてことを語ることができるでしょう。
引用にも出て来た『特性のない男』(ちなみにバイヤールからすると<流><聞>◎)に出てくるムージル司書は、目録以外本の中身を一切読みません。本の中まで入ってしまうと、「全体の見晴らし」ができなくなる、というのです。

また、僕たちが同じ本を読んだとして、それは本当に同じ本でしょうか?
作家と、そのファン。
一見同じ一冊の本を深く理解し共有スペースが多いように感じますが、それぞれが深く本にのめりこんでいる分、それぞれの距離は離れがちです。

本の主旨をまったく理解していない読者の意見を耳にするときのこの不快な経験は、逆説的かもしれないが、おそらく読者が本に好意的で、それを評価している場合のほうが辛いはずである。またそれは、読者が本を細部にわたってコメントするときにもっとも強い作用を及ぼす。というのも読者は、その過程で、自分にもっともなじみのある言葉を用いるからであり、そうして、作家の本に近付くどころか、自分自身が理想とする本に近付くからである。読者が理想とするこの本は、一個しかない本であり、他のいかなる言葉にも書き換えられない本であるだけになおさら、言語と他者との関係において決定的な重みをもつ。作家はそのとき大きな幻滅に見舞われる。なぜなら彼はそこで自分を他人から隔てる測りしれない距離を発見するからだ。

僕は、本は楽譜だと思っています。
同じ楽譜を見ていても、そこから生まれる音楽は数えきれません。
また、同一人物でさえ、一度弾いたものと同じ音楽はもう紡げません。
その楽譜を見て、どう弾くか、それは僕たち個人の手に委ねられています。

僕たちはなぜ本を読むのでしょうか。

こうして、ワイルドの観点からすれば、口実に格下げされた文学作品は(「批評家にとって芸術作品は、彼自身の新しい作品への示唆にすぎず、それは必ずしもそれが批評するものと明白な類似を有するには及ばない」)、気をつけていないと容易に障害に変わってしまう。それは、たんに同時代の作品に見るべきものがほとんどないからではなく、——偉大な作品の場合も事情は同じである——、注意を傾けすぎて、批評家自身の関心事を蔑ろにしがちな読書というものは、彼を自分自身から引き離しかねないからである。批評活動の正当性の根拠は批評家自身についての考察にあるのであって、それのみが批評を芸術のレベルに押し上げるのである。

中略

読書のパラドックスは、自分自身に至るためには書物を経由しなければならないが、書物はあくまで通過点でなければならないという点にある。良い読者が実践するのは、さまざまな書物を横断することなのである。良い読者は、書物の各々が自分自身の一部をかかえもっており、もし書物そのものに足を止めてしまわない賢明さをもち合わせていれば、その自分自身に道を開いてくれるということを知っているのだ。われわれがヴァレリーや、ロロ・マーティンズや、私の学生たちの一部といった、じつに多様で、ひらめきに満ちた読者のうちに見たのも、この種の横断にほかならない。彼らは、あいまいな知識しかもたない、あるいあはまったく知らない作品の部分的要素をとらえて、もっぱら自己本来の考察に身を投じ、そうして自己を見失わないよう意を用いたのである。

読むために読む、のではなく、使うために、糧にするために読む。
ブックディレクターの幅允孝さんも、読んだ本をいかしてどう人生を面白くするか、といったことを述べています。

例えば面白い本を1日部屋に閉じこもって4冊読むよりは、2冊を読んで、その2冊で面白かった話を携えて、その2冊分の時間を他人と会って飲んだ方がいい。

幅さんの著作の1つのタイトルは、「つかう本」です。

さて、ここで面白い対比になってくるのが、以前紹介したもうすぐ絶滅するという紙の書物についてに出てくる本狂いの2人。
対極するように、彼らは「読むことが楽しい」と語ります。

これは、自転車に例えられるかも知れません。
自転車によって、遠い地に素早く移動できたり、それによって新たな景色を眺めることができます。生活を促進し、彩るツールになるわけです。
かたや自転車をスポーツととらえ、ロードレースのように走ることに意義を見いだす人たちもいるわけです。

くしくも図書館に訊け!の引用の中で、ウンベルト・エーコは本を自転車に例えていますね。

ただ、読むことに意義を見いだすのは、ロードーレーサーのようにとてもストイックなことです。
僕のような凡人にとっては少々厳しい道のりですので、僕はどう自分に活かすか、という庶民派の読み方気味です。
しかし、これらがくっきり二分できないのは言うまでもないこと。
大事なのは、こう読まなければならないなんてマナーは本にないということ。自由に読んでいいということではないでしょうか。

そして、本について語るということは、本を通して自分を語るということです。
自分というフィルターを通して語っている、というよりも、自分というフィルターそのものを作品を使って語っているのです。

と、まぁ、このブログ自体がいい例になってくるわけです。

これは書評、というか推書ブログなわけですが、比較的自由に適当なことを言い散らかしています。
しかし、自分で言うのもなんですが、本を語る言葉の裏側にいる自分が、このブログを読んでくれている方たちに透けて見えているんじゃないかと思っています。

本が僕を紹介しているようなもんです。
で、本が僕を紹介し、その僕が本を紹介していく。
その切っても切れない、くんずほぐれつの関係でお送りしております。

でもやっぱり、この本の影響は大きかったからなのか、この本の書評は本自体よりも、それを読んだ僕は何を語るか、という点にシフトしつつあります。

なんだかこんがらがってきそうなので、ここまでで。

しかし、この本で一番衝撃を受けたのは、あとがきで明かされる秘密。
最後にあとがきを読むまで、この本が持つ重要な仕掛けに全く気づきませんでした。
何より、その仕掛けが、この本の一番の主張になっていると感じました。

さて、ここまで読んでくださったみなさんは、もうこの本が未知のものではなくなりました。
読まずに語るも良し、読んで語るも良し。

でもこの本のすごいところは、”読まずにはいられない本”ではなく、”語らずにはいられない本”だということです。

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